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Journal Description

JMIR Perioperative Medicine (JPOP, Editor-in-chief: John F. Pearson MD, Harvard Medical School) is an open access journal focusing on technologies, medical devices, apps, engineering, informatics and patient education for perioperative medicine and nursing, including pre- and post-operative education, preventative interventions and clinical care for surgery and anaesthesiology patients, as well as informatics applications in anesthesia, surgery, critical care and pain medicine.

We are read by clinicians and patients alike and have (as all JMIR journals) a focus on readable and applied science reporting the design and evaluation of health innovations and emerging technologies. We publish original research, viewpoints, and reviews (both literature reviews and medical device/technology/app reviews).

During a limited period of time, there are no fees to publish in this journal. Articles are carfully copyedited and XML-tagged, ready for submission in PubMed Central.

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Recent Articles:

  • Tablet-based telemonitoring after surgery. Source: Image created by the authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL: http://periop.jmir.org/2020/2/e15672/; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Perioperative Tablet-Based Telemonitoring After Abdominal Wall Hernia Surgery: Pilot Prospective Observational Cohort Study

    Abstract:

    Background: Hernia repairs account for millions of general surgical procedures performed each year worldwide, with a notable shift to outpatient settings over the last decades. As technical possibilities such as smartphones, tablets, and different kinds of probes are becoming more and more available, such systems have been evaluated for applications in various clinical settings. However, there have been few studies conducted in the surgical field, especially in general surgery. Objective: We aimed to assess the feasibility of a tablet-based follow up to monitor activity levels after repair of abdominal wall hernias and to evaluate a possible reduction of adverse events by their earlier recognition. Methods: Patients scheduled for elective surgical repair of minor abdominal wall hernias (eg, inguinal, umbilical, or trocar hernias) were equipped with a telemonitoring system, including a tablet, pulse oximeter, and actimeter, for a monitoring phase of 7 days before and 30 days after surgery. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed. Results: We enrolled 16 patients with a mean overall age of 48.75 (SD 16.27) years. Preoperative activity levels were reached on postoperative day 12 with a median of 2242 (IQR 0-4578) steps after plunging on the day of surgery. The median proportion of available activity measurements over the entire study period of 38 days was 69% (IQR 56%-81%). We observed a gradual decrease in the proportion of available data for all parameters during the postoperative course. Six out of ten patients (60%) regained preoperative activity levels within 3 weeks after surgery. Overall, patients rated the usability of the system as relatively easy. Conclusions: Tablet-based follow up is feasible after surgical repair of minor abdominal wall hernias, with good adherence rates during the first couple of weeks after surgery. Thus, such a system could be a useful tool to supplement or even replace traditional outpatient follow up in selected general surgical patients.

  • Source: freepik; Copyright: jcomp; URL: https://www.freepik.com/free-photo/man-is-using-telephone-colorful-blurred-bokeh-light-office-people-background_3805538.htm#page=1&query=patients%20using%20phone&position=23; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    A Smartphone App With a Digital Care Pathway for Patients Undergoing Spine Surgery: Development and Feasibility Study

    Abstract:

    Background: There is a great unmet clinical need to provide patients undergoing spinal surgery and their caregivers with ongoing, high-quality care before and after surgery in an efficiency-focused health care environment. Objective: The objective of this study is to design, develop, and evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of a novel planning-, outcomes-, and analytics-based smartphone app called ManageMySurgery (MMS) in patients undergoing elective spine surgery (MMS-Spine). Methods: The development process of the MMS app was conducted over 2 sequential stages: (1) an evidence-based intervention design with refinement from surgeon and patient feedback and (2) feasibility testing in a clinical pilot study. We developed a novel, mobile-based, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act–compliant platform for interventional and surgical procedures. It is a patient-centric mobile health app that streamlines patients’ interactions with their care team. MMS divides the patient journey into phases, making it feasible to provide customized care pathways that meet patients’ unique needs. Patient-reported outcomes are easily collected and conform to the National Institutes of Health Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) standard. Results: We tested the feasibility of the MMS-Spine app with patients undergoing elective spine surgery at a large academic health system. A total of 47 patients undergoing elective spine surgery (26 cervical spine and 21 lumbar spine surgeries) downloaded and used MMS-Spine to navigate their surgical journey, quantify their baseline characteristics and postoperative outcomes, and provide feedback on the utility of the app in preparing for and recovering from their spinal surgery. The median age was 59.0 (range 33-77) years, 22 of the 47 patients (47%) were women, and 26 patients (55%) had commercial insurance. Of the 47 patients, a total of 33 (70%) logged in on an iOS device, 11 (23%) on an Android device, and 3 (6%) on a computer or tablet. A total of 17 of the 47 patients (36%) added a caregiver, of which 7 (41%) logged in. The median number of sign-ins was 2. A total of 38 of 47 patients (81%) completed their baseline preoperative PROMIS-29 outcomes, and 14 patients (30%) completed at least one PROMIS-29 survey during the postoperative period. Of the 24 patients who completed the MMS survey, 21 (88%) said it was helpful during preparation for their procedure, 16 (67%) said it was helpful during the postoperative period, and 23 (96%) said that they would recommend MMS to a friend or family member. Conclusions: We used a patient-centered approach based on proven behavior change techniques to develop a comprehensive smartphone app for patients undergoing elective spine surgery. The optimized version of the app is ready for formal testing in a larger randomized clinical study to establish its cost-effectiveness and effect on patients’ self-management skills and long-term outcomes.

  • A user is manipulating an augmented reality model using the Hololens which is also being projected to a television screen. Source: Image created by the authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL: http://periop.jmir.org/2020/2/e18367/; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Comparing Computed Tomography–Derived Augmented Reality Holograms to a Standard Picture Archiving and Communication Systems Viewer for Presurgical...

    Abstract:

    Background: Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) are ubiquitously used to store, share, and view radiological information for preoperative planning across surgical specialties. Although traditional PACS software has proven reliable in terms of display accuracy and ease of use, it remains limited by its inherent representation of medical imaging in 2 dimensions. Augmented reality (AR) systems present an exciting opportunity to complement traditional PACS capabilities. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the technical feasibility of using a novel AR platform, with holograms derived from computed tomography (CT) imaging, as a supplement to traditional PACS for presurgical planning in complex surgical procedures. Methods: Independent readers measured objects of predetermined, anthropomorphically correlated sizes using the circumference and angle tools of standard-of-care PACS software and a newly developed augmented reality presurgical planning system (ARPPS). Results: Measurements taken with the standard PACS and the ARPPS showed no statistically significant differences. Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of 0.08% (95% CI –4.20% to 4.36%) for measurements taken with PACS versus ARPPS’ circumference tools and –1.84% (95% CI –6.17% to 2.14%) for measurements with the systems’ angle tools. Lin’s concordance correlation coefficients were 1.00 and 0.98 for the circumference and angle measurements, respectively, indicating almost perfect strength of agreement between ARPPS and PACS. Intraclass correlation showed no statistically significant difference between the readers for either measurement tool on each system. Conclusions: ARPPS can be an effective, accurate, and precise means of 3D visualization and measurement of CT-derived holograms in the presurgical care timeline.

  • Picture of BellyBreath app use. Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: Christian L Petersen; URL: http://periop.jmir.org/2020/2/e16639/; License: Creative Commons Attribution + Noncommercial + NoDerivatives (CC-BY-NC-ND).

    Feasibility of Using a Single Heart Rate–Based Measure for Real-time Feedback in a Voluntary Deep Breathing App for Children: Data Collection and Algorithm...

    Abstract:

    Background: Deep diaphragmatic breathing, also called belly breathing, is a popular behavioral intervention that helps children cope with anxiety, stress, and their experience of pain. Combining physiological monitoring with accessible mobile technology can motivate children to comply with this intervention through biofeedback and gaming. These innovative technologies have the potential to improve patient experience and compliance with strategies that reduce anxiety, change the experience of pain, and enhance self-regulation during distressing medical procedures. Objective: The aim of this paper was to describe a simple biofeedback method for quantifying breathing compliance in a mobile smartphone app. Methods: A smartphone app was developed that combined pulse oximetry with an animated protocol for paced deep breathing. We collected photoplethysmogram data during spontaneous and subsequently paced deep breathing in children. Two measures, synchronized respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSAsync) and the corresponding relative synchronized inspiration/expiration heart rate ratio (HR-I:Esync), were extracted from the photoplethysmogram. Results: Data collected from 80 children aged 5-17 years showed a positive RSAsync effect in all participants during paced deep breathing, with a median (IQR; range) HR-I:Esync ratio of 1.26 (1.16-1.35; 1.01-1.60) during paced deep breathing compared to 0.98 (0.96-1.02; 0.82-1.18) during spontaneous breathing (median difference 0.25, 95% CI 0.23-0.30; P<.001). The measured HR-I:Esync values appeared to be independent of age. Conclusions: An HR-I:Esync level of 1.1 was identified as an age-independent threshold for programming the breathing pattern for optimal compliance in biofeedback.

  • Source: Unsplash; Copyright: National Cancer Institute; URL: https://unsplash.com/photos/L8tWZT4CcVQ; License: Licensed by the authors.

    Usability of Mobile Health Apps for Postoperative Care: Systematic Review

    Abstract:

    Background: Mobile health (mHealth) apps are increasingly used postoperatively to monitor, educate, and rehabilitate. The usability of mHealth apps is critical to their implementation. Objective: This systematic review evaluates the (1) methodology of usability analyses, (2) domains of usability being assessed, and (3) results of usability analyses. Methods: The A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews checklist was consulted. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses reporting guideline was adhered to. Screening was undertaken by 2 independent reviewers. All included studies were assessed for risk of bias. Domains of usability were compared with the gold-standard mHealth App Usability Questionnaire (MAUQ). Results: A total of 33 of 720 identified studies were included for data extraction. Of the 5 included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), usability was never the primary end point. Methodology of usability analyses included interview (10/33), self-created questionnaire (18/33), and validated questionnaire (9/33). Of the 3 domains of usability proposed in the MAUQ, satisfaction was assessed in 28 of the 33 studies, system information arrangement was assessed in 11 of the 33 studies, and usefulness was assessed in 18 of the 33 studies. Usability of mHealth apps was above industry average, with median System Usability Scale scores ranging from 76 to 95 out of 100. Conclusions: Current analyses of mHealth app usability are substandard. RCTs are rare, and validated questionnaires are infrequently consulted. Of the 3 domains of usability, only satisfaction is regularly assessed. There is significant bias throughout the literature, particularly with regards to conflicts of interest. Future studies should adhere to the MAUQ to assess usability and improve the utility of mHealth apps.

  • Source: Unsplash; Copyright: Thomas Lefebvre; URL: https://unsplash.com/photos/gp8BLyaTaA0; License: Licensed by the authors.

    Digital Support for Patients Undergoing Bariatric Surgery: Narrative Review of the Roles and Challenges of Online Forums

    Abstract:

    Background: The internet has become an important medium within health care, giving patients the opportunity to search for information, guidance, and support to manage their health and well-being needs. Online forums and internet-based platforms appear to have changed the way many patients undergoing bariatric surgery view and engage with their health, before and after weight loss surgery. Given that significant health improvements result from sustained weight loss, ensuring patient adherence to recommended preoperative and postoperative guidance is critical for bariatric surgery success. In a patient cohort with high information needs preoperatively, and notoriously high attrition rates postoperatively, online forums may present an underutilized method of support. Objective: The aim of this study was to conduct a narrative review focusing on the developing roles that online forums can play for patients with bariatric conditions preoperatively and postoperatively. Methods: A literature search was conducted in October-November 2019 across 5 electronic databases: Scopus, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and MEDLINE. Qualitative or mixed methods studies were included if they evaluated patients undergoing bariatric surgery (or bariatric surgery health care professionals) engaging with, using, or analyzing online discussion forums or social media platforms. Using thematic analysis, themes were developed from coding patterns within the data to identify the roles and challenges of online forums for patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Results: A total of 8 studies were included in this review, with 5 themes emerging around (1) managing expectations of a new life; (2) decision making and signposting; (3) supporting information seeking; (4) facilitating connectedness: peer-to-peer social and emotional support; and (5) enabling accessibility and connectivity with health care professionals. Conclusions: Online forums could offer one solution to improving postoperative success by supporting and motivating patients. Future research should consider how best to design and moderate online forums for maximal effectiveness and the sharing of accurate information. The surgical multidisciplinary team may consider recommendations of online peer-support networks to complement care for patients throughout their surgical journey.

  • Source: Unsplash; Copyright: Harlie Raethel; URL: https://unsplash.com/photos/ouyjDk-KdfY; License: Licensed by the authors.

    Economic Advantages of Telehealth and Virtual Health Practitioners: Return on Investment Analysis

    Abstract:

    Background: Telehealth is a disruptive modality that challenges the traditional model of having a clinician or patient physically present for an appointment. The benefit is that it offers the opportunity to redesign the way services are offered. For instance, a virtual health practitioner can provide videoconference consultations while being located anywhere in the world that has internet. A virtual health practitioner also obviates the issues of attracting a specialist medical workforce to rural areas, and allows the rural health service to control the specialist services that they offer. Objective: The aim of this research was to evaluate the economic effects of 3 different models of care on rural and metropolitan hospital sites. The models of care examined were patient travel, telehealth using videoconferencing, and employment of a virtual health practitioner by a rural site. Methods: Using retrospective activity data for 3 years, a return on investment (ROI) analysis was undertaken from the perspective of a rural site and metropolitan partner site using a telehealth orthopedic fracture clinic as an example. Further analysis was conducted to calculate the number of patients that would be required to attend the clinic in each model of care for the sites to break even. Results: The only service model that resulted in a positive ROI for the rural site over the 3-year period was the virtual health practitioner model. The breakeven analysis demonstrated that the rural site required the lowest number of patients to recoup costs in the virtual health practitioner model of care. The rural site was unable to recoup its costs within the travel model due to the lack of opportunity for reimbursement for services and the requirement to cover the cost of travel for patients. Conclusions: Our model demonstrated that rural health care providers can increase their ROI by employing a virtual health practitioner.

  • Source: flickr; Copyright: Jeff Kubina; URL: https://www.flickr.com/photos/kubina/443743095; License: Licensed by the authors.

    Impact of Intensive Care Unit Readmissions on Patient Outcomes and the Evaluation of the National Early Warning Score to Prevent Readmissions: Literature Review

    Abstract:

    Background: Intensive care unit (ICU) readmissions have been shown to increase a patient’s in-hospital mortality and length of stay (LOS). Despite this, no methods have been set in place to prevent readmissions from occurring. Objective: The aim of this literature review was to evaluate the impact of ICU readmission on patient outcomes and to evaluate the effect of using a risk stratification tool, the National Early Warning Score (NEWS), on ICU readmissions. Methods: A database search was performed on PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Google Scholar, and ProQuest. In the initial search, 2028 articles were retrieved; after inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, 12 articles were ultimately used in this literature review. Results: This literature review found that patients readmitted to the ICU have an increased mortality rate and LOS at the hospital. The sample sizes in the reviewed studies ranged from 158 to 745,187 patients. Readmissions were most commonly associated with respiratory issues about 18% to 59% of the time. The NEWS has been shown to detect early clinical deterioration in a patient within 24 hours of transfer, with a 95% CI of 0.89 to 0.94 (P<.001), a sensitivity of 93.6% , and a specificity of 82.2%. Conclusions: ICU readmissions are associated with worse patient outcomes, including hospital mortality and increased LOS. Without the use of an objective screening tool, the provider has been solely responsible for the decision of patient transfer. Assessment with the NEWS could be helpful in decreasing the frequency of inappropriate transfers and ultimately ICU readmission.

  • Source: Flickr; Copyright: AMISOM Public Information; URL: https://www.flickr.com/photos/au_unistphotostream/30706379455/in/photolist-NMqdPr-MPnY5e-NJa5RG-jLkw1i-oY1s6K-qVeUHJ-jLkuzc-24eFna2-2hVBnq8-2hVBnra-2hVBnpb-GyeUem-5M9W3u-Jeg6Ah-29wBkZW-6nDwqz-tN2FeN-F6zd4u-NMqdiB-NMqcQn-NMqdyr-jLn4Ph-2hzVNsG-jLmYMd-tyKDUM; License: Public Domain (CC0).

    A Redesigned Order Entry System for Reducing Low-Value Preprocedural Cardiology Consultations: Quality-Improvement Cohort Study

    Abstract:

    Background: Preprocedural cardiac evaluation is a common reason for outpatient cardiology visits. Many patients who are referred to cardiology clinics for preprocedural evaluation are at low risk of perioperative events and do not require any further management. Our facility treats patients over a large geographic area; avoiding low-value consultations reduces time and travel burdens for patients. Objective: Our study objective was to assess the impact of a novel algorithm in the electronic order entry system aimed to guide clinicians toward patients who may benefit from cardiovascular referral. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed in-person consultations and electronic consultations (e-consults) to our cardiology service before and after implementation of the novel algorithm to assess changes in patterns of care. Data were stored in a custom electronic database on internal servers. Results: We reviewed 603 consultations to our cardiology clinic and found that 89 (14.7%) were sent for preprocedural evaluation. Of these, 39 (43.8% of preprocedural consultations) were e-consults. After implementation, we reviewed 360 consultations. The proportion of consultations for preprocedural evaluation did not decrease (n=47, 13.0%; P=.39). We observed an absolute increase of 13.6% in the proportion of consultations ordered as e-consults (27/47, 57.4%). During the postintervention period, we received no remarks, concerns, or criticisms from ordering clinicians about the process change and no reports of adverse events. Conclusions: Implementation of an ordering algorithm to reduce low-value preprocedural cardiology evaluations did not lead to a reduction in the number of overall preprocedural cardiology consultations. The number of patients seen electronically increased, potentially improving clinic access and reducing travel burden for patients.

  • Patient filling out an electronic patient-reported outcome measure (ePROM) together with a health care worker, who is interested in a comprehensive overview of the advantages and pitfalls of such ePROMs. Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL: http://periop.jmir.org/2020/1/e15588/; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Benefits and Disadvantages of Electronic Patient-reported Outcome Measures: Systematic Review

    Abstract:

    Background: Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are important in clinical practice and research. The growth of electronic health technologies provides unprecedented opportunities to systematically collect information via PROMs. Objective: The aim of this study was to provide an objective and comprehensive overview of the benefits, barriers, and disadvantages of the digital collection of qualitative electronic patient-reported outcome measures (ePROMs). Methods: We performed a systematic review of articles retrieved from PubMED and Web of Science. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed during all stages. The search strategy yielded a total of 2333 records, from which 32 met the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The relevant ePROM-related information was extracted from each study. Results: Results were clustered as benefits and disadvantages. Reported benefits of ePROMs were greater patient preference and acceptability, lower costs, similar or faster completion time, higher data quality and response rates, and facilitated symptom management and patient-clinician communication. Tablets were the most used ePROM modality (14/32, 44%), and, as a platform, Web-based systems were used the most (26/32, 81%). Potential disadvantages of ePROMs include privacy protection, a possible large initial financial investment, and exclusion of certain populations or the “digital divide.” Conclusions: In conclusion, ePROMs offer many advantages over paper-based collection of patient-reported outcomes. Overall, ePROMs are preferred over paper-based methods, improve data quality, result in similar or faster completion time, decrease costs, and facilitate clinical decision making and symptom management. Disadvantages regarding ePROMs have been outlined, and suggestions are provided to overcome the barriers. We provide a path forward for researchers and clinicians interested in implementing ePROMs. Trial Registration: PROSPERO CRD42018094795; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=94795

  • Source: Shutterstock Inc; Copyright: wavebreakmedia; URL: https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/mid-section-caucasian-male-patient-using-1440404186; License: Licensed by the authors.

    A Real-Time Mobile Intervention to Reduce Sedentary Behavior Before and After Cancer Surgery: Usability and Feasibility Study

    Abstract:

    Background: Sedentary behavior (SB) is common after cancer surgery and may negatively affect recovery and quality of life, but postoperative symptoms such as pain can be a significant barrier to patients achieving recommended physical activity levels. We conducted a single-arm pilot trial evaluating the usability and acceptability of a real-time mobile intervention that detects prolonged SB in the perioperative period and delivers prompts to walk that are tailored to daily self-reported symptom burden. Objective: The aim of this study is to develop and test a mobile technology-supported intervention to reduce SB before and after cancer surgery, and to evaluate the usability and feasibility of the intervention. Methods: A total of 15 patients scheduled for abdominal cancer surgery consented to the study, which involved using a Fitbit smartwatch with a companion smartphone app across the perioperative period (from a minimum of 2 weeks before surgery to 30 days postdischarge). Participants received prompts to walk after any SB that exceeded a prespecified threshold, which varied from day to day based on patient-reported symptom severity. Participants also completed weekly semistructured interviews to collect information on usability, acceptability, and experience using the app and smartphone; in addition, smartwatch logs were examined to assess participant study compliance. Results: Of eligible patients approached, 79% (15/19) agreed to participate. Attrition was low (1/15, 7%) and due to poor health and prolonged hospitalization. Participants rated (0-100) the smartphone and smartwatch apps as very easy (mean 92.3 and 93.2, respectively) and pleasant to use (mean 93.0 and 93.2, respectively). Overall satisfaction with the whole system was 89.9, and the mean System Usability Scale score was 83.8 out of 100. Overall compliance with symptom reporting was 51% (469/927 days), decreasing significantly from before surgery (264/364, 73%) to inpatient recovery (32/143, 22%) and postdischarge (173/420, 41%). Overall Fitbit compliance was 70% (653/927 days) but also declined from before surgery (330/364, 91%) to inpatient (51/143, 36%) and postdischarge (272/420, 65%). Conclusions: Perioperative patients with cancer were willing to use a smartwatch- and smartphone-based real-time intervention to reduce SB, and they rated the apps as very easy and pleasant to use. Compliance with the intervention declined significantly after surgery. The effects of the intervention on postoperative activity patterns, recovery, and quality of life will be evaluated in an ongoing randomized trial.

  • Source: freepik; Copyright: peoplecreations; URL: https://www.freepik.com/free-photo/surgeons-performing-operation-operation-room_1008428.htm#page=1&query=surgeon&position=1;

    Preoperative Fasting Practices Across Three Anesthesia Societies: Survey of Practitioners

    Abstract:

    Background: Pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents is recognized as a complication of anesthesia. To minimize that risk, anesthesiologists advised fasting for solid foods and liquids for an often prolonged period of time. However, 30 years ago, evidence was promulgated that fasting for clear liquids was unnecessary to ensure an empty stomach. Despite a strong evidence base and the knowledge that fasting may be physiologically harmful and unpleasant for patients, the adoption of society guidelines recommending short fasting periods for clear fluids into clinical practice is uncertain. Objective: This study aimed to determine the current practices of anesthetists with respect to fasting guidelines. Methods: An electronic internet survey was distributed to anesthetists in Canada (CAN), Australia and New Zealand (ANZ), and Europe (EUR) during April 2014 to February 2015. The anesthetists were asked about fasting guidelines, their recommendations to patients for the consumption of clear fluids and solid foods, and the reasons and consequences if these guidelines were not followed. Results: A total of 971 anesthetists completed the survey (CAN, n=679; ANZ, n=185; and EUR, n=107). Although 85.0% (818/962) of these participants claimed that their advice to patients followed current society guidelines, approximately 50.4% (476/945) enforced strict fasting and did not allow clear fluids after midnight. The primary reasons given were with regard to problems with a variable operating room schedule (255/476, 53.6%) and safety issues surrounding the implementation of clear fluid drinking guidelines (182/476, 38.2%). Conclusions: Many anesthetists continue to follow outdated practices. The current interest in further liberalizing preoperative fluid intake will require more change in anesthesia culture.

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